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Ohms, Subwoofers and Amplifiers

OHMS, SUBWOOFERS and AMPLIFIERS

Describing Flow Through a Mobile Audio Pathway

PLAYER -> SIGNAL PROCESSOR -> AMPLIFIER -> SPEAKERS

The topic today refers to the last pair of modules of a total of four that complete the Mobile Audio Pathway. Refer to the previous article. I believe if we can’t have an audio system that plays loudly, clearly and with good balance, for a long time reliably then what is the point? 

Ever heard the saying “It’s so hot you could cook an egg on that?” That’s the sort of condition I would like you to plan to avoid when planning to run subwoofers and an amplifier to power them.

car amp cooking eggs
Click for the video.
ShowtimeSPL
Published on Jun 21, 2012
Once again we see Hank Veach showing off. His amps got hot enough to fry an egg on.

Review: Why do we need an amplifier? 

Answer: Small signals must be multiplied to get the loudness we desire out of our speakers.

Why? Speakers, as we use them in mobile audio systems, are very inefficient. Most of the signal, the voltage, that gets to the speaker is lost as waste heat. 

Amplifiers are much more efficient than speakers, yet they still lose a great amount of energy as heat.  

Students of Mobile Audio
Students of Mobile Audio
Join the Facebook Group NOW!

 

Review: What are “Ohms” and why is it so important with subwoofers and amplifiers? I am not going to get into all of the “Whys” as it will end up requiring many thousands of words. I do strongly recommend you follow the link in the carton image below to refresh your knowledge of Ohm’s Law. 

Disclaimer: If you want to be able to confidently design and build out a reliable mobile audio system you cannot do it without understanding electricity.  ‘Basic Installation Technician Study Guide’, published by MECP under the Consumer Electronics Association, is a book I strongly recommend for anyone who wants to learn to earn a living with mobile audio systems.

Ohms law cartoon
Click to learn “How to Use Ohms Law”

Common mistake: mixing up where the Ohms come from in the amplifier+subwoofer relationship

RIGHT: We speak of Ohms with the subwoofers, specifically the voice coils.

WRONG: An amplifier does not “have” Ohms.

LOWER OHMS = MORE HEAT AND MORE RISK OF THE AMPLIFIER SHUTTING OFF

MTX Audio has provided a web site to help you to know if your subwoofer and amplifier combination is compatible. You can go through this exercise to be a more empowered DIY shopper, or you can use this to double check my recommendations for you.

Subwoofer Wiring Diagrams

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Barry Schanz
Rubyserv
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sales@rubyservsales.com

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Mobile Audio Pathways

Mobile Audio Pathways

Mobile Audio Pathways

Students of Mobile Audio
Students of Mobile Audio
Join the Facebook Group NOW!

The purpose of this is to lay the foundation of how we think about flow through a Mobile Audio System. Mobile Audio Pathways is a concept that you must understand like the back of your hand if you want to master sound system design. 

Sketching out the pathway by hand, by putting a pencil or pen onto paper and making it become whole in front of you, helps make it more solid and real in your mind. You can do this on a tablet or computer also. If you’re worried about what program or app you need, do not overthink it. More on that later.

Have you ever gotten deep into a project which you started without a plan, and you started to doubt yourself? You’ve got parts scattered all around, you’re stepping over and around things, you’re wondering Where Did I Put That Thing?! I’m not promising that won’t happen again once you learn and implement Mobile Audio Pathways. What I’m laying out is a proven way of planning a sound system that will serve you well.

Whatever Mobile Audio System you decide to start, start something good. Become more confident. Understand why it is you’re buying what the salesman or the discussion group or the shopping site recommended. The pathway works whether it’s a very small and simple sound system or it’s massive and pushes you past what limits you thought you have. 

Describing Flow Through a Mobile Audio Pathway

PLAYER -> SIGNAL PROCESSOR -> AMPLIFIER -> SPEAKERS

These are the 4 primary modules of a Mobile Audio System. 

PLAYER

This is all about playback of a recording. We’re not generating music in the vehicle, like singing into a microphone karaoke style or plugging in an electric guitar and playing a solo. The Player could be a radio, or a head unit, a receiver, your smartphone or a portable digital audio player. Did you think of another form of player? 

SIGNAL PROCESSOR

Signal processing means something is changing the voltage(the signal in a Mobile Audio System) in some constructive way before passing it along through the Pathway. 

An equalizer is a signal processor. This might not be a separate piece of hardware. Your player likely has an equalizer, even if it’s just a button or slider to increase the bass. That’s signal processing.

AMPLIFIER

The Player and the Signal Processor work on Low Voltages that are not yet ready for the final module in the Mobile Audio Pathway. First we need the Amplifier. This is where Low Voltage is multiplied, or increased by many times in amplitude, up to High Voltage. 

The Player often has an amplifier. A head unit usually gives us the option of connecting speakers directly to it. Your smartphone may have a headphone jack, and if it does it has an amplifier.

SPEAKERS

This is the final module of a Mobile Audio System. The job of a Speaker is to take voltage and convert it into pressure against the atmosphere, which is then heard by our two ears and deciphered by our brain. 

Pictured below is a Mobile Audio System Diagram. Do you see a Player, a Signal Processor, an Amplifier, and Speakers?

mobile audio system diagram
Mobile Audio System Diagram
completed in Microsoft Word
Touch to zoom in

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Barry Schanz
Rubyserv
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More Power – Amplifiers

more power

More Power – Amplifiers

Do you find your sound system never seems to get loud enough? Maybe it gets loud but the details in your music keep getting more crunchy and grungy as you rotate the volume knob to the right. Distortion rises to an offensive and speaker-threatening level. Instead of giving you pleasure the music makes you mad.[1] 

Often the determined audio enthusiast turns to a bigger amplifier(MORE POWER). 

More Power, More Channels

I believe if we can’t turn it up loud and keep it there reliably then what is the point?

Might we still be in the danger zone after increasing amplifier power? It depends.

More Power Justification:

  • Increase the watts and dB SPL must go up
  • I want nothing but clean power for my highly dynamic recordings
  • The bass is overpowering everything else(more power for mids and highs)
  • Adding more speakers and I want or need more amplifier channels
  • More power means greater headroom

What is ‘Headroom’?

Headroom is the difference between the maximum output power of the amplifier and the maximum signal you ask it to output. If you want 50W at most and the amp can put out 100W, it has 3 dB of headroomHeadroom is a good thing, because it means when you push the amp hard, it won’t distort. [2]

I stopped experimenting with this extra headroom several years ago. The thirst for more power for my speakers peaked with a maximum of 250W RMS per 6.5″ midbass woofer, which I stepped up from 90W RMS.

That’s almost 3X the power. Must’ve kicked butt, right?

It was not what I hoped for. Nothing broke and I didn’t harm myself or nearby small animals. Something happens as we add more power to our speakers that I don’t think can be understood until it’s tried.

Apparent Power vs Distortion 

This article is not going to take a deep dive into that subject. I will say now that if we double amplifier power that theoretically gives us another 3 dB of clean dynamics, assuming the music has adequate dynamic range. Along with that is the thought that some distortion is completely tolerable to most people, and distortion from the speakers can not only be enjoyable but it adds to our perception of how loud the music seems to be. 

During the years that have passed since that 250W per woofer experiment I have also dropped the power all the way down to 18W RMS on similar woofers. How was it?

18W per speaker got bizarrely loud. Distortion increased a lot more obviously and earlier as the volume at the radio increased.

You might hate me for ending the article here, but remember that this is an ongoing message. Maybe it’s strange to say it could even become a discussion. Leave a comment with your questions below.

References:

  1. There’s a Biological Reason Why Some People Get Chills When They Listen to Music
  2. amplifier “headroom” explanation? AmigaPhreak 

Barry Schanz
Rubyserv
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Clean vs Dirty Power – Car Audio Talk

clean vs dirty power

Clean vs Dirty Power – Car Audio Talk

Matthew Allen Clark administrator of Real Car Audio Help on Facebook
Last night I was doing some research and came across an forum argument about “clean” and “dirty” power so without us starting an argument I am going to ask a question without adding my opinion (until later) I want to know everyone’s views on this especially you elder statesmen like my self who have been doing this for decades.

So question:
Give me your best definition of what is meant by “clean” power when talking about an amplifier?

The foundation of this discussion is Distortion.

Distortion is any departure from the original. That’s not a dictionary definition.

Listen to examples of audio distortion, provided by mediacollege.com: 

How to Prevent Distortion

I believe this entire debate is full of holes, and how deep do we want to take this?

In terms of audio amplifiers “Dirty” vs “Clean” power tends to mean
1) A broad judgement of quality of the amplifier.
2) The way in which the gain or input sensitivity was adjusted

I have never seen or heard this lingo used by audio amplifier designers. That doesn’t mean it never happens but this is street talk, not engineering talk.

this is street talk, not engineering talk

Back to distortion.

What is the job of an amplifier?

It takes a signal of some lesser amplitude and multiplies it to greater amplitude. By the nature of the devices required to make that happen there will be a change other than increased amplitude away from the original signal, aka distortion.

This isn’t always a bad thing. How much distortion can we hear? Does it change if we’re listening to a sound system in headphones vs a car sound system while driving on the highway?

That is to get you thinking about perception, which is an aspect of audio playback systems that I find extremely fascinating.

Clean vs Dirty power

Remember this is laymen’s terms and not engineering talk. I’m not an engineer and I would be happy to reach out to someone if the interest is great enough.

My perspective on this is “Clean Power” is amplifier output of sufficiently low distortion that it is not an influence on sound quality. In other words, it’s just making the music louder and we call that characteristic “transparency”. It is assuming the gain or input sensitivity is set in a way that does not introduce excessive clipping under normal use.

As an aside, I said “excessive clipping” very deliberately. I do not promote setting an amplifier so that it never clips.

Further reading:

Barry Schanz
Rubyserv
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Amplifier Gain Setting – Introduction

Amplifier Gain Setting introduction

Have you ever said any of these things about amplifier gain setting?

  • I set it to halfway
  • It wasn’t even turned up all the way!
  • I didn’t even touch it
  • It’s supposed to be louder than that

Disclaimer: Before you get into this, please understand I do not know your individual skill level. This is a primer to a topic that brings in a lot of science, and the science is not going to be discussed in depth. This is skimming the surface. Got it? Good. Let’s go.

Why does this thing we call Setting Gains even matter? 

The purpose of an amplifier gain setting is to match the input range of the amplifier to the output voltage of the source unit.

Why? The thing we get to listen to by hitting Play starts as sound waves, which are changed into electricity, which eventually get changed from electricity(we will measure this as Volts) back to sound waves.

Back to gain setting. The source unit is the radio. Output from the radio goes to the input section of the amplifier. 

The output voltage swings up and down as we adjust the volume setting of the radio, and also as the program(music, talk radio, podcast, etc.) changes in loudness. 

We know the bottom of the range. That’s Volume at ‘0’ or when the music is paused. The top of the range can be assumed to be 3/4 of maximum. That’s for the output of the source unit

The input of the amplifier is also adjusted. When the gain setting is too low you’re going to run out of volume, or the bass won’t get as loud as you think it should. 

A Note About Loudness

Turning the gain knob to the right makes the sound louder. This is similar to the result of turning up the volume at the radio. We are doing different functions. The gain knob is not the volume setting of the amplifier.

gain knob on amplifier
Another label for amplifier gain setting might be ‘Level’.

Rob Haynes, Product Training Specialist at JL Audio in Miramar, FL, explains the four primary reasons we must have a repeatable and accurate method for amplifier gain setting. This might also be called the Input Sensitivity setting.

  1. Optimize performance from the amplifier without excessive clipping
  2. Reduce distortion
  3. Improve sound quality
  4. Avoid damaging the speakers

The following video gets right into some technical terms and it assumes you already have experience of successfully installing car audio amplifiers and the use of basic tools that are shown in the video. If you want free step-by-step guidance, and you’re on Facebook, now is the time to join our group Students of Mobile Audio.

Top 3 Gain Setting Methods (in no particular order)

  • By ear with music
  • By combining tone test tracks and a digital multimeter (set to measure volts).
  • Use tone test tracks and an oscilloscope

I’ve done it all three ways with success. Each method must include reference quality test tracks so you or a technician can go back at any given time and get things back in alignment. Turning the knob up halfway is not a method I will endorse. That’s guessing.

There have been many sources of reliable test tracks for audio systems over the years. One that came up as a free download is Focal Tools CD

Focal Tools CD
Focal Tools CD

Advanced amplifier gain setting

  • Balancing multiple amplifiers
  • What to consider in low power versus high power amplifiers
  • Clipping indicator lights and other in-built amplifier setting aids
  • How much clipping is too much?

Would you like to contribute your own amplifier gain setting article? Ask me how to be a guest author!

Barry Schanz
Rubyserv
Schedule a Meeting Now
sales@rubyservsales.com

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Metal Dome Tweeters Are Harsh

Metal Dome Tweeters Are Harsh

Have you ever heard that metal dome tweeters are harsh?

Have you sworn you will never like metal tweeters?

“These d@(& tweeters are harsh.”

“They hurt my ears.”

“It sounded too bright.”

“My ears were bleeding”

Maybe you’re sitting and nodding your head right now. I see there’s an opportunity to explain what might have led to this belief, this opinion, this bad rep that metal dome tweeters have the burden of bearing unfairly. 

Dome Tweeter Cutaway Side View

What’s In a Dome tweeter?

  • The dome that we see through the protective grille. This can be made from a variety of organic and inorganic materials.
  • Often there is a form of absorbing material directly behind the dome
  • A flexible surround to connect the edge of the dome to the outer structure. Another term is “suspension”.
  • A length of fine coated wire called the Voice Coil, which is connected to the back side of the dome…
  • which is interacting with a magnetic structure called a Motor

What Parts or Design Considerations Matter in a Great Dome Tweeter?

We find there tends to be a lot of resistance to an idea if it’s mainly coming from an individual’s collection of experiences and stories. Personal anecdotes are valuable and interesting. They’re not enough to justify product design decisions where a business is at stake, at least not in the fields of audio reproduction. I asked the product design team at CDT Audio for some help with this article.

CDT Audio banner image

Design Priorities From a Tweeter Design Team

  • Control of the back wave, potentially including a back chamber.
  • A flexible non-resonant surround so as not to contaminate the dome sound.
  • A non-resonant soft dome or hard dome whose resonance is beyond the audible frequency range.
  • A powerful magnetic field for good sensitivity.
  • A smooth mounting surface and potentially adding a waveguide can also be employed both to control dispersion.

Along with this information came a warning.

Remember sometimes the harsh sound comes from the mids but tweets get the blame.

Further reading:

What’s great about your favorite tweeters? Do you know what materials were used to make them sound so good? Scroll down to leave a comment!

Barry Schanz
Rubyserv
Schedule a Meeting Now
sales@rubyservsales.com
Shop Tweeters 

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Choose 2 Channels or 4 Channels – Speaker Amplifier Buying

Choose 2 Channels or 4 Channels

How do I choose 2 channels or 4 channels when I decide I need an amplifier for speakers?

When you’ve committed to upgrading your sound system this question might have been very sharp and clear in your mind.

Let’s dive into a real world example. This could happen if you talked with a sales person and they go to the effort of trying to understand your motives. Often there is a hidden complication or twist that comes from a difference of understanding what can be done.

Tip for Better Communication: Ask open-ended questions when you’re in discovery mode.

This is pulled from an online discussion. Jim is the inquisitive shopper.

Overhead drawing of car and 4 door speakers Kevin Hulsey

Jim: is there a way to wire the left door speakers together such that they run as a stereo channel off one input, or is this only for subwoofers?

Barry: Two doors, two speakers wired together means you have one input which cannot be stereo. It doesn’t matter what type of speaker it is, that is going to result in one channel of sound.

In this example the same input signal will be played back from the front left door and the rear left door. Is that what you want?

What do you want?

“the same input signal will be played back from the front left door and the rear left door.”

Jim: Isn’t this how it already is since all the speakers are mono?

It was mostly just hypothetical because I wanted to know if I should buy a 2 channel or 4 channel amp, but I understand now. Appreciate the help!

 
line drawing of Mono vs Stereo Signals
Mono vs Stereo Signals sent to two speakers
Barry: No. I think the confusion is because we’re using a prefix, “Mono”, to mean one, yet we’re talking about different parts of the signal chain.
 
The input starts with the source, or the program material. We assume you’re playing music that’s made to have Left and Right channel separation(Stereo sound).
 
The next step is a division of this signal that takes place at the radio. I don’t know what radio and vehicle sound system you have so I’m making an assumption that it’s the standard radio with 4 speaker outputs, Front Left, Front Right, Rear Left and Rear Right.
 
For the pleasure and comfort of the passengers we have all 4 speakers on 4 separate outputs. By adjusting the Balance and Fade controls in the radio you can find that you will be able to play a mix of as few as 1 speaker up to all 4, redirecting the emphasis or loudness throughout 4 quadrants of the interior.
 
Let’s go back to the music, which we assume has Left and Right separated, in Stereo sound. The radio sends the Left channel sound to both the Front Left and the Rear Left speakers, and so on for the right side. For your decision, we’re not done.

Choose 2 Channels or 4 Channels?

Why do we buy a separate high power amplifier for speakers?
  • Greater clarity
  • More power to better drive less efficient aftermarket speakers
  • and a bit more loudness and fullness to the sound.

Ask yourself two questions

  1. Do I want all 4 speakers, front and rear, to get these improvements?
  2. Is it possible I mainly want to improve the sound where I sit?
Choosing a 4 channel amplifier is usually a safe decision. Some car amplifier manufacturers don’t even offer 2 channel amplifiers, as the market has dictated they aren’t in high demand.
 
Normally we can still use a 4 channel amplifier as a 2 channel amplifier.
 
If you begin using the 4 channel amplifier as a 2 channel amplifier that offers an upgrade path.
 
Sometimes it makes sense to use the 4 channel amplifier as a 3 channel amplifier. 
 
Is it a horrible idea to have more options with one purchase? Talk with your sound system designer. 
 
Further reading:

Barry Schanz
Rubyserv
Schedule a Meeting Now
sales@rubyservsales.com

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Keep It Simple – Don’t Make This Mistake in Your Sound System

Keep It Simple

Keep It Simple is a lesson I have broken many times. Depending on the perspective, that could be a blessing or a curse. If you don’t know it, I’ll give a quick retelling of my story.

I got started with car audio by entering the family business at age 14, and everything about it was new. This was 1995 and car audio was pretty simple. I remember watching my uncle David joining wires together to install a new radio. Even that routine task was a lot to take in. 

Once I moved away from home for good I also started backing off from car audio. I was still listening to music obsessively, but it was a time of transition in my 20s(sound familiar?) and cars took on a different meaning. When I got back into car audio on a professional level, nearly a decade later, I went to the Internet to catch up. Things had progressed massively in terms of the volume of information to find for free, and I also quickly realized car audio had gone through a couple of paradigm shifts (SPL subwoofers with huge structures? What the heck? Time alignment??). 

Car audio had gone through a couple of paradigm shifts.

Unchecked growth can get you in trouble. Don’t fall victim to the appeal of starting with a huge sound system in mind, or taking a small system and growing it with every neat or trendy concept you see.

Keep It Simple

Over several years of testing and experimenting with different sound system configurations I have some highlights to indicate how far from simple this became. Not all of the parts listed here were in the system at the same time.

  • Touch screen head unit with smartphone connectivity
  • 8 channel digital signal processor with 8 channel amplifier inside
  • Two 6-channel amplifiers
  • A separate bass amplifier
  • Three passive crossovers
  • Two pairs of tweeters in the front
  • Two pairs of 2″ mid-tweeter wide range pods on the dash 
  • Two woofers in the front doors
  • Two 2-way coaxial speakers in the rear deck
  • Two speakers added to the front doors, for a total of 3 speakers per door.
  • Up to two subwoofers at one time

The biggest number of speakers at one time was 11, using 8 DSP channels, in a 5.1 multichannel configuration. I write this not to brag, but because I have to tell this so you can understand

I’ve Been There – It Is Awesome If It’s Done Right, But It Can Burn You

Car Audio System Diagram dated 11-16-2014
Car Audio System Diagram dated 11-16-2014

Potential Causes of Pain

  • Planning a complicated system can get overwhelming. 
  • Time management. If you’re doing something in a way you’ve never done before this can be hard to predict in all arenas of life. What do you do when it’s 1 a.m., the vehicle is still torn apart, and you MUST drive it to work in the morning? When is your next opportunity to work on this project?
  • More parts = more chances to damage something. One more pair of speakers could mean one more set of panels to remove, which is another set of panel clips that might get broken or bent, which is…Maybe you get the point. It can really compound in ways that are costly. 

Have you reached out for guidance or counsel in some other part of your life? Did that experience save you some money and pain? 

If you’re in need of help with your car audio system I invite you to book your call with me right now. Let’s keep it simple. Don’t make the mistake of turning down professional coaching.

30 minute call

Barry Schanz
Rubyserv
701-620-1124
sales@rubyservsales.com

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Trust Your Intuition and Your Ears

trust your intuition and your ears

Have you ever sat down to for an event, like you’re out with your special someone to the movies and you got there early. Sweet parking spot, perfect weather. You got the popcorn when it was super fresh and hot. The lights dim way down and someone behind you lets out a cheer because it’s OPENING NIGHT and they waited 3 YEARS for this.

And then you get a few minutes into the movie. Huh? Why is it so hard to understand what they’re saying? Why is the music and the crashes and explosions so OVERPOWERING? Gosh, didn’t they listen to the soundtrack before they put this out? Think this doesn’t happen? 

movie theater audience
audience in a movie theater

Hit blockbuster Dunkirk sparks a flurry of complaints from angry viewers after they say they can’t hear the dialogue

A customer who complained to a London Picturehouse­ cinema said: “We were told they had received complaints about not being able to hear the dialogue after virtually every showing.

If Something Sounds Wrong It Is Wrong

Maybe you’ve never been to a movie and maybe you have, but the dialog wasn’t a problem. If you have, you knew something was wrong and it wasn’t just you. 

You know something is wrong with the sound.

You were in a group, the audience, and you had immediate feedback from the murmurs or complaints from those sitting near you. 

What if you’re alone and listening to a new song and you start to wonder.

Is something wrong with my system? Do I need to clean my ears? Man this sounds a little too crispy, or the bass is too strong, or the singer kind of makes me cringe. She’s a Grammy award-winning artist, surely she warmed up before recording this. 

It could be a bad performance, or a badly done recording, or yes something might be weak about your sound system.

The point is, if it’s bothering you then trust your gut. Trust your ears and trust your intuition.

If Something Sounds Wrong It Is Wrong

What should you do if your vehicle sounds bad? This question has led a lot of people down the rabbit hole of following blue link after blue link, or hopping Facebook Groups. Read, read, read. 

You worked up the courage to post a question. Man these people are talking a new language. I hope I don’t sound dumb.

  • Do I need to buy something?
  • I read that I first need to do X…is this true?
  • Can someone meet me and listen to this? 
  • Should I go to “The Car Audio Shop”? I’m afraid they just want to take my money.

Drop a comment below if this makes you say, “That’s me!”.

Barry Schanz
Rubyserv
701-620-1124
sales@rubyservsales.com

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Bass and Treble Tone Controls

Bass and Treble Tone Controls

tone controlsHave you got a bad opinion of bass and treble tone controls? Sometimes these are on the front of a receiver or amplifier as knobs. Today these are absent on aftermarket car receivers (aka head units, decks) but why? As a person who is deeply interested in good sound you should know that tone controls are your friend.

Our hearing is very sensitive to small broad spectrum tilts, up or down. What is a broad spectrum tilt?

I want you thinking in terms of a tilt, like how a see-saw kid’s toy will pivot on a fulcrum. One side goes up as you push up with your legs and then the other side goes down.

see-saw
see-saw

Four Divisions of Sound We Hear, Color Shaded

What you see in the see-saw image could represent a broad spectrum tilt to take the bass down and bring the treble up. This isn’t a deep concept and I’ll get to the point shortly.

A bass tone control setting for your sound system could be one of your most frequently used tools. Music sometimes gets produced with too much or too little bass. You can read the blog  post Myth Busting: Music is Pristine for an example of this. If you have a bass tone control setting at hand what would you do? You’d give that knob a turn while playing the offensive music and stop when it sounds right! 

We Want Both a Powerful Equalizer AND Tone Controls

When we work to make the system perform with smooth frequency response, for better sound quality, the equalizer is one of our powerful tools. The upper midrange peak illustrated below could be addressed with an equalizer.

Example of a frequency response graph

If we were correcting the response of a bass-limited speaker, and careful use of the equalizer brought the frequency response down to the black curve what would we get? In the car it’s possible you would think the treble is too bright. People with normal hearing are likely to want a downward tilt to the treble, starting at roughly the middle of the spectrum(visually speaking). The bass is also a problem, but a subwoofer is needed to fix that issue.

What To Do

If you will follow me through to the conclusion of this series of articles, and get into the forthcoming training, you will understand the following:

  1. How a skilled listener of music thinks and responds to changing music quality.
  2. What is an equalizer and how to best use it.
  3. Music currently CANNOT be produced consistently and
  4. We should have simple and broadly acting bass and treble controls ready at hand.

If you have a radio with tone controls it’s OK if you feel like you need to change these as you change music. You’re compensating to what you’ve got so you enjoy it more. 

Barry Schanz
Rubyserv
701-620-1124
sales@rubyservsales.com